Zigbee is a specification for a radio standard that allows devices in the home, or office to communicate with each other over long distances. The technology can be used to provide light controls, automation features and even security systems amongst many other possibilities.
Zigbee is a wireless communication protocol that uses the radio spectrum. It can be used as a low-power, low-cost alternative to WiFi and Bluetooth. Zigbee devices are typically battery powered and use little power when in standby mode.
What exactly is Zigbee? and how does it work?
Do you want to use a network structure that is flexible, has a long battery life, and is simple to set up?
To begin, let us ask a question: what is Zigbee? Zigbee is a wireless technology standard that defines a series of limited-range communication protocols.
IoT networks based on Zigbee are low-cost and low-power. Zigbee uses the IEEE 802.15.4 physical radio standard, as well as unlicensed bands.
Why Is Zigbee Technology Necessary?
Why do we need another short-range communication standard when we already have Wifi and Bluetooth? The Zigbee standard, on the other hand, is for control and sensor networks.
Because Wi-Fi and Bluetooth are not ideal for this kind of wireless connection, the goal is to monitor and control devices.
So, what is Zigbee’s standard addressing? Zigbee is a short-range wireless communication standard that tackles the demand for extremely low-cost implementation of low-power devices with low data rates.
It is one of the most widely used Internet of Things standards (IoT).
Zigbee is an open-source standard established by the Zigbee Alliance, a non-profit organization founded in 2002 that currently has hundreds of users.
Zigbee Technology’s Applications
1. Automated Home:
A home automation controller with a software program that controls devices in Zigbee Home Automation.
A central hub, or simply a hub, is another name for the controller. The gateway serves as a connection between the Zigbee network and the internet.
The gateway links to the internet, allowing the owner of the home to operate smart home gadgets from anywhere on the planet. The Zigbee protocol may be used to control the following smart home devices:
Zigbee Technology Applications – What exactly is Zigbee?
- Locks on doors
- Smoke detectors, for example.
Because the switches are battery driven, they are not linked to any electrical cable in the diagram. Switching the plugs on and off sends a signal to the controller, indicating whether the relevant device should be turned off or on.
2. Medical Information Gathering:
The Remote Monitoring System is another intriguing Zigbee network application. A patient might be wearing Zigbee sensors that capture data such as blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature.
This data will be relayed over the internet to a hospital computer through the Zigbee gateway, allowing a physician or nurse to keep track of the patient’s health.
What is Zigbee and how does it relate to medical data?
Why can’t we simply utilize Wi-Fi or Bluetooth technology for these gadgets, you may wonder? For battery-powered devices or equipment that need minimal power consumption, such as sensors, WiFi consumes a lot of energy.
Zigbee devices have a modest data rate, but Wi-Fi devices have a high data rate. As a result, using Wi-Fi in this application is overkill.
Bluetooth will also be incompatible since the Bluetooth network can only handle 7 devices at a time, but Zigbee can support 100.
3. Control Systems for Industry:
Devices may be linked to the router with lower data expenses and reduced power usage using Zigbee technology. It also gathers all necessary data and conducts control activities inside a building.
Industrial control systems are one of the Zigbee technology’s applications.
Characteristics of the Zigbee Standard in General:
- Low Power Consumption: Zigbee devices may run for many years on a single battery charge. The devices in Zigbee applications spend their time in a power-saving state known as sleep mode.
- Low Data Rate: It ranges from 20 to 250 kbps, while Wi-Fi delivers 11 Mbps and Bluetooth delivers 1 Mbps. Zigbee has a large data transport capacity.
- Short Range: The Zigbee network has a range of 75-100 meters inside and 300 meters outdoors (line of sight).
- Joining a network takes roughly 30 milliseconds, but Wi-Fi takes 3 seconds and Bluetooth takes up to 10 seconds.
- Support for small and big networks: Zigbee networks range in size from a few devices to a thousand. In principle, Zigbee can handle up to 65000 devices in a single network, but in practice, only 240 devices are supported, while Wi-Fi can support 32 devices and Bluetooth just seven.
- Low Product Costs and Low Implementation Costs: This is due to the technology’s simplicity. Because Zigbee is an open-source protocol, it is less complicated than Wi-Fi or Bluetooth. This makes it less expensive for manufacturers because they do not have to pay a licensing fee or royalty.
- For data encryption and authentication, Zigbee employs the AES cryptographic method. It’s a standard that banks use to conduct internet transactions. One of the safe cryptographic algorithms is used in government entities.
- Operating Frequency Bands: Zigbee is presently allocated to three frequency bands.
- There is just one channel at 868 MHz. This band is currently performing across Europe.
- 915 MHz — This frequency covers eleven channels in the United States and Australia.
- It has 26 channels and is accessible all across the globe at 4 GHz.
Devices and Networks Compatible with Zigbee:
Zigbee is the first coordinator. The Coordinator gadget is the most powerful. The network is started by this device. Because each network has only one coordinator, it is the network’s root. The coordinator is responsible for a variety of responsibilities, including:
What is Zigbee and What Are the Different Types of Zigbee Devices and Networks?
- Channel selection — Before the coordinator begins, it does an automated channel scan to choose the least-interfering channel.
- Assign a Network ID — This assigns a unique address to each device on the network. As a result, whenever a device enters the network, the network coordinator gives it an address. The coordinator is also in charge of initiating and transferring network communications.
2. Routers — Between the coordinator and the end devices, Zigbee routers serve as initial nodes.
This results in traffic being routed between multiple nodes. They also receive and save communications addressed to their kids. Other routers and end devices may connect to the network via routers.
3. End Device – The Zigbee end device only holds enough data to communicate with the parent node.
End devices can sleep (standby), making them good candidates for battery-operated devices. All communication destined for a certain end device is routed via its parent. Any pending messages are requested by the end device from its parent.
Topologies of Zigbee Networks
What is Zigbee
What exactly is ZIgbee? – Topologies of Zigbee Networks
1. Topology of the stars
- It is the most straightforward and cost-effective method.
- In this design, there are no routers.
- The end device is unable to interact with another end device directly.
2. Topology of Meshes
- Every node communicates with the node next to it (except for the end devices)
- To get to its goal, a communication jumps from one gadget to the next.
- Data may be re-routed via another path if a node fails.
3. Topology of Trees
- Because it is not linked to surrounding nodes, it is similar to mesh configuration.
- Routers are not linked together.
Access to Channels
Because all devices will have to share this one channel to communicate, the coordinator allocates just one channel to the network. There are two ways to get access to a channel:
- Method based on contention
- Method that isn’t constrained
1. A method based on expectations
- It is not necessary to synchronize devices.
- All devices that use the channel employ the Carrier Sense Multiple Access- Collision Avoidance technique.
- When a device wishes to transmit in CSMA, it must:
- It goes into receive mode initially.
- Determine whether or not there is any signal in the channel.
- If the channel is clear, the gadget will send the data. If it isn’t obvious, the gadget switches off for a while and then tries again.
2. No-Contention Method
- Each device is assigned a certain time slot by the coordinator. It’s referred to as a “guaranteed time slot” (GTS).
- A beacon is used to synchronize the clocks of all networked devices.
Step 1: Make certain you have a hub.
Step 2: Choose your devices. Consider the size of the space. The gadget should be within 10-20 meters when utilizing Zigbee. If your gadgets aren’t too close together, the Zigbee range should suffice.
In a Zigbee mesh network, it employs a series of extender devices that operate as routers.
If your rooms are large, you’ll want home technology like Z-Wave that has a greater direct range.
Step 3: Configure the hub.
Step 4: Connect devices and plug them in.
Zigbee is the most advanced, powerful, and cost-effective home technology available. Zigbee is a low-power wireless technology that only utilizes data when it is needed. It provides a lot of benefits over Bluetooth.
Because it uses less energy than Wi-Fi, it has the longest battery life.
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Zigbee is a wireless mesh networking protocol. It is designed for use in home automation, industrial control, and other applications that require low-power, long range communications. Zigbee was introduced by the ZigBee Alliance in 2004. The name “ZigBee” comes from its original implementation as a ZigBee-based system with Bluetooth coexistence. Reference: zigbee topology.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is Zigbee and its applications?
A: Zigbee is a wireless technology for data communication. It operates on the 2.4 gigahertz (GHz) band and uses unlicensed radio frequencies in much the same way that WiFi does, but with more power efficiency than WiFi can provide because it avoids conflicts between devices using different radios to communicate over longer distances or through walls.
Which of the following are the Zigbee application?
A: The Zigbee application is a popular wireless mesh network standard that was developed by the IEEE.
What is Zigbee technology discuss in detail about Zigbee architecture and its application areas?
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